Turkmenistan is a Turkic country in Central Asia. Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the southwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast, Kazakhstan to the northwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. After 69 years as part of the Soviet Union (including 67 years as a union republic), Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991.
The climate of Turkmenistan is sharply continental, with the exception of the inshore zone of the Caspian Sea and the mountains. Average annual air temperature along the whole territory is positive and ranges on plain part of Turkmenistan from 12—17 °C in the north to 15—18 °C in the south-east. The coolest month is January with the average temperature from –6 °C in the northeast of Turkmenistan to +4 °C in the south-east and +5 °C in the end west. Average temperature of the hottest month — July, is 27—30 °C.